Ecological Footprint Project

THe plan

My total ecological footprint was 8.60. My highest section was transportation, coming in at 270. This is because my family owns two cars and we spend a lot of time driving and frequently don’t carpool. My second highest category was food, at 190, then fun, at 140. My lowest section was shelter, with 20 points.

I believe that my footprint was in the middle, potentially a little lower than the rest of the class. I know that Albert and Leah got around 7 hectares, and some people got as high as 14 hectares. Canada has an average of 7.8, so I come in just above the per capita footprint.

Ten actions that I can feasibly take to reduce my ecological footprint are:

  1. Shorten my shower time to 1-2 minutes as opposed to 3-6 minutes (-20)
  2. Reduce the garbage I create from one shoebox to one cup. (-40)
  3. Change the lightbulbs in my house from incandescent to LED’s  (-10 or -20)
  4. Bike to school and field hockey (-15)
  5. Avoid spending time on screens (-30)
  6. Get a water-saving device for my toilet (-5)
  7. Go vegetarian:
    1. Stop eating beef (-20)
    2. Stop eating pork (-10)
    3. Stop eating chicken (-30)
    4. Stop eating fish (-40)


The five options that I chose to implement into my life were:

  1. Stop eating beef (-20)
  2. Stop eating pork (-10)
  3. Stop eating chicken (-30)
  4. Stop eating fish (-40)
  5. Reduce the garbage I create from one shoebox to one cup. (-40)

I chose these items because for two reasons. I chose to go vegetarian because I have always been curious about the experience, and I often felt guilty about how much carbon I was producing in taking part in the consumption of meat (the average meat lover produces 3.3 tonnes of carbon compared to 1.7 tonnes produced by the average vegetarian). I also chose to reduce the amount of garbage that I created because it was a small step that would make a big difference.

I will implement these steps through a variety of methods. In order to go vegetarian, I will create my own meal plan and separate shopping list, and cook my own meals. I will be using Anne Lindsay’s selection of cookbooks to create a variety of meals that are iron-rich and have complete proteins. For my first meal I am planning on making mushroom-lentil burgers.

For reducing the amount of garbage I produce, I will be making better decisions on how I dispose of my waste, like composting fruit scraps as opposed to throwing them in the garbage. I shall also eat less processed, prepackaged foods such as granola and snack bars. Finally, I shall take home my used yogurt and apple sauce pots and rinse them out before washing them.

The reflection

One change that was easier for me to make was creating less garbage. This change was relatively simple, and it mostly involved me being conscious  with the snacks that I brought to school and the stuff that I bought. I was able to reduce my amount of waste from to pretty quickly, and that is a change that I have implemented permanently.

A change that was harder for me to make was going vegetarian. I found that I didn’t have as much time to make myself a separate meal, so I sometimes turned to canned soup and chili on particularly busy nights. However, this change was beneficial to me as I gained experience with cooking my own meals and meal planning. I also learned more about iron and different amino acids, and complete proteins.

An obstacle that I faced was a lack of time to prepare my own meals. I found that on busy weeknights, mostly Tuesdays and Thursdays, I would barely have enough time to finish all my homework, as I had kayaking practice from 4-5:30, then hockey from 6:30-8:30 or 9:30, depending on the day. I found that the best way to make the best use of the little time I had was to make a big batch of soup or casserole on Sunday night, and reheat it during the week.

Another obstacle that I encountered was some resistance from my parents. My parents were concerned over the amount of iron that I would be getting, as well as a little irritated by my eating of separate meals. Also, my dad is concerned about how processed tofu is. I was able to work with my parents to plan meals that had plenty of iron and that didn’t have tofu. I also was able to minimize the inconvenience of my making of separate meals, as I only used the kitchen on Sunday afternoons.

Some steps I plan to take in the future are to reduce my use of garbage, continue to choose vegetarian options for meals, and choose meats that have less of an impact on the environment, such as wild salmon.


Hamilton Blog Post

Plot Summary
The basic premise of this song is Aaron Burr, Thomas Jefferson, and James Maddison (Democratic-Republicans) scheming to investigate Hamilton, while also lamenting the fact that they lack Washington’s respect. It serves as a method of explaining the Democratic Republican’s plan to “look for the seeds of Hamilton’s misdeeds” – to find the origin of Hamilton’s supposed malfeasance. This song is propelled by the frustration of the Democratic-Republicans, as shown by the ever-increasing intensity of the music and the frequent “Oh!”-s. This song demonstrates the complexity of the relationships in the musical- Jefferson and Madison grew to despise Hamilton and the Treasury Department, but still crave Washington’s respect and view him as a fatherly figure. They also feel alienated by political differences.
Taking a closer look at the lyrics, intensity, and vocals of the song can demonstrate a lot about plot points and relationships in the musical.  One can examine this by looking closer at the parts that Aaron Burr sings- he starts off the song and joins in on the chorus, but he never joins in on the rapping where Jefferson and Madison do most of the scheming- showing how he was involved in the investigation, but not driving it. He is motivated by his need for validation, power, and respect from others- as shown in “Schuyler Defeated”. His want for validation is not being sufficiently fulfilled, so he takes out his frustration on Hamilton. In Hamilton, Burr is portrayed as a character without strong principals or beliefs, saying that he will “wait for it” and “talk less, smile more”. He feels slighted by Hamilton, who is very brash and “has nothing to lose”- Burr has constantly been compared to Hamilton and has lost many opportunities because of this personality difference. This envy over differing personalities leads to one of the major plot points in Hamilton.
While Jefferson, Madison, and Burr are on the same side, Jefferson and Madison’s motivation for investigating Hamilton is quite different. Hamilton was a Federalist (The Federalists were one of the two major political parties during America’s early years, who supported a fiscally sound, central government. They were mostly upper-class elites and supported good relations with Britain), and Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were Democratic-Republican (The Democratic-Republicans, favored the rights and governments of the individual states as opposed to the main government. They supported individual farmers and favored France over Britain, and believed in the principals of republicanism and feared the Federalists would end up forming an oligarchy if left unopposed.). This tension between the elites and the common folk is a common conflict in history and was something that consumed politics in Washington’s America. In Hamilton’s effort to consolidate state debt, he fought for the Treasury Department’s resources (Hamilton had over five hundred employees in the Treasury compared to Jefferson’s eight employees at the State Department). This inflation of the financial department served as a potential warning of the possibility of an over-bearing federal government.
As noted in “The Dark Side of Hamilton” by Tom Cutterham, Hamilton was an “anti-democrat” who believed that “Nothing but a permanent body […] can check the imprudence of democracy”. Many Democratic-Republicans feared the consolation of power into the hands of a few, wealthy, elites. Jefferson viewed Hamilton’s financial plans as a plot to accomplish this. As Madison states, “So he’s doubled the size of the government / Wasn’t the trouble with much of our previous government size?” He is questioning how different would this future really be from a British-controlled state.
A major theme in Hamilton is the difference maker in the world, their ‘legacy’. Jefferson feels as though his opinion is not being respected by Washington. Instead, he is being stifled as Hamilton’s ‘disastrous’ financial plans are implemented. He is unable to make a difference. Out of this frustration, Jefferson reaches an epiphany- “If we don’t stop it we aid an abet it / I have to resign”. He feels that his concerns are not being properly heard by Washington, and his efforts go to waste if he does not “stop” Hamilton. In the next presidential election, Jefferson campaigned against Washington’s successor John Adams.
Respect is another theme in “Washington On Your Side”. As the chorus goes, “It must be nice, It must be nice to have Washington on your side.” This is Burr, Jefferson, and Madison wistfully thinking of how simpler their political endeavors would be if they had Washington’s political clout behind them. They hate to oppose Washington, as they feel that they owe him loyalty and respect as the president. But, Washington is not on their side, so they have no choice but to oppose him. In addition, they envy Hamilton as he has gained a sizable amount of Washington’s respect.
Character Development
Context: *See plot summary
Character Development:
The characters that are signing in this song are Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Aaron Burr. Other characters that are mentioned in this song are Alexander Hamilton and George Washington.
Thomas Jefferson— Jefferson wants a better life for American citizens and worries that this future is being corrupted by Hamilton. Jefferson remarks that “Our poorest citizens, our farmers, life ration to ration / as Wall Street robs them blind in search of chips to cash in”. He is saying that the economic status and poverty of some Americans (notably farmers) is being compromised because of the heavy tax burden. On the flip side, Jefferson fears the Goliath of the American Government, the Treasury Department, with gain even more power and strength. He laments that “every second the Treasury grows”, meaning that the Treasury is getting bigger and bigger, and Jefferson feels that he lacks control of the situation and his opinions aren’t being respected. Thomas’s background as a founding father influences this song He as he has seen conflicts that the previous, British-run government had created. He worried that the American government would end up in a vicious cycle where the federal government took more and more power from the populace.

James Madison— James Madison was another driving member of the Democratic-Republican Party- who were concerned with keeping the power in the hands of the people. He had similar wants and fears as Jefferson- he wanted to have respect from Washington but feared Hamilton’s plan to consolidate national debt, as it could lead to the formation of a monarchy. “Washington On Your Side” also shows how Madison’s loyalties have changed over the course of Hamilton. Madison was originally a Federalist- he wrote 29 of the 85 essays in the Federalist Papers. But as the Federal government grew and grew, he became concerned about government size. He had a verse, which was later removed, “I used to write with him/Imbibe with him and ride with him/I find myself on this side of a sizable divide with him./We used to fight for the right to be left alone./But left alone to his own devices, he’s a crisis all his own”. Madison is saying that they used to be friends and comrades, but Hamilton has spiraled out of control when “Left to his own devices”. This knowledge of Madison’s concerns contributes to our understanding of the conflicts in the second act.
Connections to Historical Elements
“I’ll pull the trigger on him, someone loads the gun and cock it”
What Jefferson is referencing is opposition research. By loading the gun and cocking it, Jefferson is pleading for someone to find evidence of Hamilton’s supposed wrongdoing- hence oppo research. The concept of opposition (oppo) research has existed for a very long time. It was first proposed as a war strategy by Sun Tzu and is still in use today. In the late 1700’s and the early 1800’s, this tactic took the form of spreading rumors through highly partisan newspapers, using pen names. One example of this is when Alexander Hamilton used this technique to discredit Thomas Jefferson. He wrote under the pseudonym “Phocion,” and accused Jefferson of having an affair with a slave. These partisan newspapers held massive sway in elections- they have even been compared to today’s super PACs.
“Look in his eyes / See how he lies”
This ties in with the practice of mudslinging. While Jefferson, Burr, and Madison have no “real” evidence of Hamilton’s crimes, they still allege that he is dishonest. Mudslinging is where rumors, lies or “alternate facts” are spread about the opposition, typically through the media. This practice is still used today to discredit the opposition.
“Thanks to Hamilton, or cab’net’s fractured into fractions”
This quote demonstrates the political parties being formed; something that Washington was very much opposed to. He even mentioned it in his farewell speech, saying “The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism.” Even though Washington campaigned against partisanism, his policies reflect his Federalist leanings.
“Wasn’t the trouble with much of our previous government size?”
This is a reference to colonial America under British rule. One of the reasons for the American Revolution was the size of the British Government and the disenfranchisement of Americans. Many people feared that history would repeat itself, and the new American government would deprive “Americans” (the rich, white, land-owning males who could vote) of their newfound freedom.
Socials Curriculum
BIG IDEA: Disparities in power alter the difference between individuals and societies.
This big idea connects to “Washington on Your Side” because of both talks about the relationship between power and individuals and different demographics in society. In “Washington On Your Side”, Madison notes that  “Wasn’t the trouble with much of our previous government size?” He is questioning what was the point of returning to a government with an immense amount of power. The Federalists believed in a more Hobbes-type of government. While it was still democratic, it removed power from individual citizens and placed it in the hands of the electoral college, who didn’t have to vote the way the people voted. This disparity in power (the Federalist party was comprised of elites who had more power), tipped the scales and caused the society and government to have more power than the individual. This power struggle between the state and the individual caused tension between the two political parties with opposing ideals.
Thematic and Personal Connections
Personal Interest
I found looking at the tension between the political parties very interesting. Political science is a topic that I am passionate about, and I enjoyed bringing that passion into Hamilton. Included in this is the struggle over government organization, and I had a lot of fun researching the different political parties and synthesizing the data as concisely as possible. One line that particularly resonates with me is, “So he’s doubled the size of the government / Wasn’t the trouble with much of our previous government size?”.  This line resonates with me because I am able to identify persuasive strategies used to argue a point, and there is a history behind this topic.
“It must be nice, it must be nice / to have Washington on your side”-  The catchphrase of this song, it shows how while all of the younger founding fathers have an immense amount of respect for Washington, they are beginning to question Washington’s supposed non-partisanship. This is a result of Washington seeming to favor Hamilton. This lead to the widening of the rift between the two major political parties- the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists (the ‘jacobins’ or Democratic-Republicans).
“If Washington isn’t gon’ listen / To disciplined dissidents, this is the difference: / This kid is out!”-  After repeated disputes between Jefferson and Washington, mostly over their positions on major issues (Jefferson was a top member of the Democratic-Republicans, and Washington had Federalist leanings), Jefferson decided that he would resign from his position of Secretary of State. He did this in 1793, and in 1796 he ran for president. When Jefferson left Secretary of State, he had more time and freedom to oppose Federalism.
“If we follow the money and see where it leads / Get in the weeds, look for the seeds of / Hamilton’s misdeeds” – This quote references the decision of Jefferson, Madison, and Burr to investigate Hamilton. The practice of researching political enemies to gain an advantage or edge in the next referendum. When Jefferson, Madison, and Burr say “Get in the weeds”, they presumably mean to analyze the small but important details, in hopes that they could find evidence linking Hamilton to a (financial) crime. This continues on in “look for the seeds of / Hamilton’s misdeeds,” as they are looking for a concrete origin of a supposed crime. Also, this is a reference to Hamilton’s affair with Maria Reynolds.

Final Blog Post- In-Depth

My Recent Progress:

I have recently completed my last mentorship meeting! I am a little sad because I had a lot of fun and gain a lot of valuable experience as a baker, but I feel satisfied having done my very best and succeeded in a work environment. On my last day, I made lemon meringues, chocolate ganache cakes, cheesecake, frosted cupcakes, and assisted with high tea.

In other news, I have completed some concept drawings for my cake. I am planning to do a purple mirror glaze with a marbled effect, and garnished with purple and yellow edible flowers. I am also planning to fill a cupcake stand with meringues and potentially whip cream and a berry compote. Finally, I will either bring French macrons or mini lemon meringue cakes. The reason why I am slightly altering my original plan is French macrons traditionally contain almond or pistachio flour, and nuts are not allowed. I am searching for a feasible flour replacement, but I have not had much luck. I have not had any other major challenges or impediments in this section of the project.

I plan to present my In Depth project with a learning center. For this, I will have the cake on a stand, flanked by the meringues and the macrons or lemon meringues. I will decorate my learning center with an Eiffel Tower, fairy lights, doilies, and a clothesline with photos of the cake-making process. I would like to have my learning center outside to contribute to the aesthetic of my learning center.

Hamilton Big Ideas Blog Post

Emerging ideas and ideologies profoundly influence society

“Plannin’ for the future see him now as he stands on the bow of a ship heading for a new land / In New York you can be a new man.”

This quote shows how the “American Dream” influenced society at the time. There was a belief that in the New World,  you had control over your future, and this gave many pseudo-Americans the drive and ambition to make a name for themselves.

Disparities in power alter the balance of relationships between individuals and societies 

“When he was ten his father split, full of it, debt-ridden / Two years later, see Alex and his mother bed-ridden / Half-dead sittin’ in their own sick, the scent thick / And Alex got better but his mother went quick”

This shows how Hamilton’s position in society as someone in poverty impacted his relationships with his parents. His father left when he was very young, presumably to do with the fact that he was “debt-ridden.” Also, disease was more common among the lower classes, so his relationship with his mother was cut short.

Collective identity is constructive and can change over time

“Will they know what you overcame? / Will they know you rewrote the game?”

In this quote, the “they” refers to the Americans, and it is asking if America can understand the struggles of Hamiliton. This shows a change in identity because the world is a very different place from the seventeen hundreds.

The physical environment influences the nature of social, political, and economic change.

“Then a hurricane came and devastation reigned / a man who saw his future drip, dripping down the drain”

When this song talks about the hurricane that hit St. Croix, the economic status of the island was negatively impacted, and he realized that he was running out of options.

Independent Investigation #1

To what extent did Indigenous law evolve through contact with Europeans?

Image result for woodcut indigenous law

Lady justice with her scales
For this inquiry project, I focused on three main groups: the Wendat and Wyandot people (also known as the Huron-Wendat), the Haudenosaunee (also known as the Iroquois people), and the indigenous peoples of Manitoba. I selected these groups because they played an important role in the founding of Canada, and there was a lot of information that was readily available. In this project, I focused on laws and governance, and I utilized Canadian, European and Indigenous sources for my project.

This topic is important because it demonstrates the impact of European civilization on indigenous people and their culture. It shows that through the implementation of European law, some groups (like the Wendat) lost significant parts of their history, culture, and population. Also, it shows the disparity that indigenous people face in a justice system that fails to recognize their culture.


The Wendat People
Pre-contact Wendat people lived north-west of Lake Ontario. They were divided into clans, based on a common female ancestor. Marriage within the clan was forbidden, much like inter-family marriage today. The members of these clans would help each other out in times of conflict and war. Governance took place on three levels, much like our system of municipal, provincial and federal. The government consisted of the village, the clan, and the Confederacy. Village councils meet regularly, and were divided into everyday matters, and matters of war. Chiefs were in charge of these councils, and chiefdom was limited to the most wealthy families. If someone committed a crime, it was usually up to the victim’s family to punish the offender. The main crimes were: murder/assault, theft, witchcraft, and treason. Feuds between families were avoided by the exchange of gifts. As stated by anthropologist Bruce Trigger, “Huron law did not permit society as a whole to punish individuals.”(, accessed 11-04-2018).
Through contact with Europeans, the culture of the Wendat people was almost lost. The population was decimated because of diseases and conflicts, and the Haudenosaunee people violently assimilated a large portion of the Wendat. However, a few groups fled, including a group that we now know as the “Wyandot” or the “Wyandotte”. This group first fled to what is now Detroit and ended up on a reserve in Oklahoma. They still identify themselves by clan and follow a similar council-based structure. However, the Wyandot people have lost a substantial amount of their culture and heritage. The Wyandot people are under the jurisdiction of the American criminal legal system, and some argue that this system fails to take into account the culture and history of oppression that Indigenous people face. This results in disproportionately high rates of indigenous incarceration and this is considered one of the many biases and disadvantages that indigenous people face.

Native Americans are the unseen victims of a broken US justice system

Image result for woodcut the wendat

The Iroquois war
The Haudenosaunee
Pre-contact Haudenosaunee people lived Southeast of Lake Ontario. They were united by the Great Law of Peace, which is both a narrative and constitution that describes certain ceremonies and the history of the confederation. Like the Wendat, the Haudenosaunee traced their lineage to a single female descendant, and several of these lineages would form a clan. Clans were represented by a Clan Mother and a delegation of eight to ten people at the Confederacy and governed by a chief, chosen by the Clan Mother.
During the time of the fur trade, the Haudenosaunee Confederacy set out to absorb other indigenous groups into their culture. This was a method of increasing the strength of the group. It was known as “extending the longhouse” in the Haudenosaunee culture. While this may seem cruel in today’s culture, this was a norm for indigenous people at that time.
During the years leading up to the American Revolution, the Haudenosaunee formed numerous treaties between different groups, including the French, English, and the Two Row Wampum. During the American Revolution, the Haudenosaunee fought with the British, in exchange for guaranteed land parcels. Many villages were burned, and after the war many Haudenosaunee relocated.
The Haudenosaunee still exist as a thriving, self-governing nation today. They have an organized confederacy and have carried over a large part of their culture, like the clan system as well as the roles of chiefs and Clan Mothers. The Haudenosaunee are fighting for rights they may have once taken for granted. In one case, “Grand Chief Michael Mitchell crossed the border, declared goods, but stated he would not pay duty” (the Canadian Encyclopedia, 11-04-2018). This shows that the laws and cultural norms of the Haudenosaunee have been impacted by countries created by Europeans.


The Indigenous People of Manitoba
The pre-contact indigenous people of Manitoba used a set of unwritten laws and cultural conventions to govern their daily life. In the Ojibway and Cree tribes, Elders were relied upon to mediate disputes, much like today’s arbitrators. The indigenous people of Manitoba were individually responsible for the execution of the law. As stated in the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission of Manitoba, “A murder in the Eagle Hills in 1775–76 illustrates the practice. According to Matthew Cocking, the Hudson’s Bay Company trader at Cumberland House, who had heard the story from “Pedler Henry,” a quarrel had occurred among the Beaver Indians of the Eagle Hills (probably Crees in the area northwest of present-day Saskatoon). Cocking’s report is worth close attention:
That no account has been received [sic] from the Beaver Indians, only from the reports of others they are not expected to come down even in the Summer, on account of a Quarrel having happened between them and some others last Winter. That an Indian was shot by another the first of this Winter at the upper Settlement, the Indian killed having murdered his Wife last Summer was the reason of the other’s taking the same revenge, the Woman being his Sister: Tis supposed that the affair will stop here….” This account demonstrates how one “Beaver Indian” personally took “revenge” for the murder of his sister. Also, the injured party had the opportunity to settle the dispute if they decided to accept gifts from the offender.
The indigenous people of Manitoba lost a lot of their cultural practices and political autonomy with the passage of the Indian Act. Crimes that occur on reserve and in the traditional territory of the indigenous people of Manitoba are under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Justice System, and traditional mediation techniques that involve tribal elders are ignored. Also, the Canadian government has often tried to undermine the sovereignty of indigenous groups, denying them rights like voting unless they agreed to assimilate into European culture. However, reconciliation efforts are taking place in Canada, and with these efforts, indigenous people are regaining some of their sovereignty. There is still much to be done, and as a culture, we need to move forward and re-institute some of the original law practices of the indigenous people of Manitoba.

Image result for manitoba indian reserves map old



Thanks to the efforts of indigenous people, their culture and laws have survived through centuries full of oppression and opposition. It is impossible to create on broad statement on the evolution of indigenous law in Canada and the United States, as there are many different tribes, circumstances and alliances that dictated the evolution of indigenous laws and governance. However, European culture has implemented a justice system that replaced many traditional methods of justice.  These changes have impacted Indigenous culture as a whole, and will continue to influence their culture, as well as our culture as Canadians.


In Depth Blog Post #11


So, the last time I met with my mentor, I had the opportunity to glaze and decorate chocolate ganache cakes. I really enjoyed this experience because I had the opportunity to learn something new. I will definitely use these skills in creating my final project, a mirror glazed cake. A challenge that I have faced recently is that I am trying to cut sugar out of my diet, so this has restricted my baking at home. I am continuing to bake in the bakery, and I am considering applying for a position at another bakery once In Depth is over.


1. What kinds of learning opportunities does the mentor provide to expose you to new learning?

My mentor exposes me to new learning opportunities by having me take on new tasks. These tasks include assembling French macrons, baking, frosting and decorating ganache cakes, assembling items for high tea, etc.

2. What kinds of learning opportunities exist to reinforce new learning?

To reinforce this learning, I usually repeat this task a substantial amount of times to allow myself to learn by practicing. The opportunity for me to do this stems from the fact that my bakery makes a lot of products en masse, and this repetition allows for stronger learning.

3. What kinds of opportunities exist that might accelerate learning?

Some opportunities that exist that might accelerate learning are the opportunity that I have to observe my mentor bake. This allows me to gain a deeper understanding of the tasks that I’ve been assigned, because I have an opportunity to learn from her actions.

4. When you get together what do you talk about?

When I’m with my mentor, we usually talk about baking-related concepts. For example, we discussed the variations and temperament of French macrons, and how climate and altitude can impact the baking.

5. What is going particularly well in your mentoring relationship right now?

Something that is going well in my mentoring relationship is that I feel like I am learning a lot, and my mentor is contributing to this influx of knowledge. I an really enjoying my position in the bakery, and feel that I am gaining valuable experience and practical knowledge.

6. What are you learning about one another?

I feel like I am learning more about my mentor’s personality. For example, she has a vision for her creations, and this allows her to create wonderful baked goods. She also has a specific taste and values cohesion in baked goods. Also, she is an extrovert and entrepreneur.


17th Century Letter

To Cecil, my beloved sister

I hope this letter finds you well.

How’s life in London? How are you enjoying being married? Was it everything that you imagined? How’s the weather? Does it compare to the dark, soupy fog that settled in valleys and covered the Highlands. And what are living conditions like? I have often heard that the streets leave much to be desired, with the streets grimy and filthy, and full of crime. Do you ever regret moving there? I know it was necessary for your husband’s business, but I much prefer life in the country. The clean, fresh air, and self-sufficiency that you could never have in the city.

Well, not quite self-sufficient. It’s hard to scrape together a living as an old, unmarried spinster. I have been working as a wise woman, selling folk remedies at the town market. In my spare time I embroider fancy handkerchiefs with little roses, but even with the long, long hours that I work, it’s barely enough for a chicken, or a piece of meat.

Oh well, I wouldn’t give up my life for the world. The old pastor always tells us to be happy with what we have, because it is what God has given to us, and He is wise and all-knowing. I think that I am much happier as a spinster, even though it’s safer as a married woman.

Did you hear of the Pendle witches, from Lancaster? Old spinsters, maybe a few years younger than me. You know, I could be next. I’m scared of passion that the English have when it comes to persecuting those who are not like them. I’ve seen women, like myself, save for the fact that they had a limp or a mole. I can only hope that I remain unobtrusive enough to pass through the year without some immoral accusations being slandered against our family’s name

From your dearest sister,


Socials Document of Learning: Wheels of the Revolution

I choose the Stonewall Riots for my revolution.

  2. A connection that I can make to another revolution is the formation of organized activism groups in the 1950’s-1960’s civil rights movement (the SCLC and NAACP). The formation of activism groups allowed for organization and structure, making their activism targeted and more impactful. This relates to my Wheel of the Revolution because LGBTQ people also formed civil rights groups to organise resistance, closely mirroring that of the African American rights movement.
  3. My wheel represents the LGBTQ community fighting to gain justice. It starts in a time where there is a lot of stigma and injustice faced by LGBTQ people and ends with rights and protections for them. I do believe that this wheel will keep on turning, and this will lead to equality for not just LGBTQ Americans, but for people who face injustice and criminal charges within their own country. All in all, the consequences where positive and benefited the LGBTQ community, especially in America. The Stonewall Riots continue to resonate across North America, and they have led to many changes social, political, economic, and technological changes.