Final Blog Post- In-Depth

My Recent Progress:

I have recently completed my last mentorship meeting! I am a little sad because I had a lot of fun and gain a lot of valuable experience as a baker, but I feel satisfied having done my very best and succeeded in a work environment. On my last day, I made lemon meringues, chocolate ganache cakes, cheesecake, frosted cupcakes, and assisted with high tea.

In other news, I have completed some concept drawings for my cake. I am planning to do a purple mirror glaze with a marbled effect, and garnished with purple and yellow edible flowers. I am also planning to fill a cupcake stand with meringues and potentially whip cream and a berry compote. Finally, I will either bring French macrons or mini lemon meringue cakes. The reason why I am slightly altering my original plan is French macrons traditionally contain almond or pistachio flour, and nuts are not allowed. I am searching for a feasible flour replacement, but I have not had much luck. I have not had any other major challenges or impediments in this section of the project.

I plan to present my In Depth project with a learning center. For this, I will have the cake on a stand, flanked by the meringues and the macrons or lemon meringues. I will decorate my learning center with an Eiffel Tower, fairy lights, doilies, and a clothesline with photos of the cake-making process. I would like to have my learning center outside to contribute to the aesthetic of my learning center.

Hamilton Big Ideas Blog Post

Emerging ideas and ideologies profoundly influence society

“Plannin’ for the future see him now as he stands on the bow of a ship heading for a new land / In New York you can be a new man.”

This quote shows how the “American Dream” influenced society at the time. There was a belief that in the New World,  you had control over your future, and this gave many pseudo-Americans the drive and ambition to make a name for themselves.

Disparities in power alter the balance of relationships between individuals and societies 

“When he was ten his father split, full of it, debt-ridden / Two years later, see Alex and his mother bed-ridden / Half-dead sittin’ in their own sick, the scent thick / And Alex got better but his mother went quick”

This shows how Hamilton’s position in society as someone in poverty impacted his relationships with his parents. His father left when he was very young, presumably to do with the fact that he was “debt-ridden.” Also, disease was more common among the lower classes, so his relationship with his mother was cut short.

Collective identity is constructive and can change over time

“Will they know what you overcame? / Will they know you rewrote the game?”

In this quote, the “they” refers to the Americans, and it is asking if America can understand the struggles of Hamiliton. This shows a change in identity because the world is a very different place from the seventeen hundreds.

The physical environment influences the nature of social, political, and economic change.

“Then a hurricane came and devastation reigned / a man who saw his future drip, dripping down the drain”

When this song talks about the hurricane that hit St. Croix, the economic status of the island was negatively impacted, and he realized that he was running out of options.

Independent Investigation #1

To what extent did Indigenous law evolve through contact with Europeans?

Image result for woodcut indigenous law

Lady justice with her scales
For this inquiry project, I focused on three main groups: the Wendat and Wyandot people (also known as the Huron-Wendat), the Haudenosaunee (also known as the Iroquois people), and the indigenous peoples of Manitoba. I selected these groups because they played an important role in the founding of Canada, and there was a lot of information that was readily available. In this project, I focused on laws and governance, and I utilized Canadian, European and Indigenous sources for my project.

This topic is important because it demonstrates the impact of European civilization on indigenous people and their culture. It shows that through the implementation of European law, some groups (like the Wendat) lost significant parts of their history, culture, and population. Also, it shows the disparity that indigenous people face in a justice system that fails to recognize their culture.


The Wendat People
Pre-contact Wendat people lived north-west of Lake Ontario. They were divided into clans, based on a common female ancestor. Marriage within the clan was forbidden, much like inter-family marriage today. The members of these clans would help each other out in times of conflict and war. Governance took place on three levels, much like our system of municipal, provincial and federal. The government consisted of the village, the clan, and the Confederacy. Village councils meet regularly, and were divided into everyday matters, and matters of war. Chiefs were in charge of these councils, and chiefdom was limited to the most wealthy families. If someone committed a crime, it was usually up to the victim’s family to punish the offender. The main crimes were: murder/assault, theft, witchcraft, and treason. Feuds between families were avoided by the exchange of gifts. As stated by anthropologist Bruce Trigger, “Huron law did not permit society as a whole to punish individuals.”(, accessed 11-04-2018).
Through contact with Europeans, the culture of the Wendat people was almost lost. The population was decimated because of diseases and conflicts, and the Haudenosaunee people violently assimilated a large portion of the Wendat. However, a few groups fled, including a group that we now know as the “Wyandot” or the “Wyandotte”. This group first fled to what is now Detroit and ended up on a reserve in Oklahoma. They still identify themselves by clan and follow a similar council-based structure. However, the Wyandot people have lost a substantial amount of their culture and heritage. The Wyandot people are under the jurisdiction of the American criminal legal system, and some argue that this system fails to take into account the culture and history of oppression that Indigenous people face. This results in disproportionately high rates of indigenous incarceration and this is considered one of the many biases and disadvantages that indigenous people face.

Native Americans are the unseen victims of a broken US justice system

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The Iroquois war
The Haudenosaunee
Pre-contact Haudenosaunee people lived Southeast of Lake Ontario. They were united by the Great Law of Peace, which is both a narrative and constitution that describes certain ceremonies and the history of the confederation. Like the Wendat, the Haudenosaunee traced their lineage to a single female descendant, and several of these lineages would form a clan. Clans were represented by a Clan Mother and a delegation of eight to ten people at the Confederacy and governed by a chief, chosen by the Clan Mother.
During the time of the fur trade, the Haudenosaunee Confederacy set out to absorb other indigenous groups into their culture. This was a method of increasing the strength of the group. It was known as “extending the longhouse” in the Haudenosaunee culture. While this may seem cruel in today’s culture, this was a norm for indigenous people at that time.
During the years leading up to the American Revolution, the Haudenosaunee formed numerous treaties between different groups, including the French, English, and the Two Row Wampum. During the American Revolution, the Haudenosaunee fought with the British, in exchange for guaranteed land parcels. Many villages were burned, and after the war many Haudenosaunee relocated.
The Haudenosaunee still exist as a thriving, self-governing nation today. They have an organized confederacy and have carried over a large part of their culture, like the clan system as well as the roles of chiefs and Clan Mothers. The Haudenosaunee are fighting for rights they may have once taken for granted. In one case, “Grand Chief Michael Mitchell crossed the border, declared goods, but stated he would not pay duty” (the Canadian Encyclopedia, 11-04-2018). This shows that the laws and cultural norms of the Haudenosaunee have been impacted by countries created by Europeans.


The Indigenous People of Manitoba
The pre-contact indigenous people of Manitoba used a set of unwritten laws and cultural conventions to govern their daily life. In the Ojibway and Cree tribes, Elders were relied upon to mediate disputes, much like today’s arbitrators. The indigenous people of Manitoba were individually responsible for the execution of the law. As stated in the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission of Manitoba, “A murder in the Eagle Hills in 1775–76 illustrates the practice. According to Matthew Cocking, the Hudson’s Bay Company trader at Cumberland House, who had heard the story from “Pedler Henry,” a quarrel had occurred among the Beaver Indians of the Eagle Hills (probably Crees in the area northwest of present-day Saskatoon). Cocking’s report is worth close attention:
That no account has been received [sic] from the Beaver Indians, only from the reports of others they are not expected to come down even in the Summer, on account of a Quarrel having happened between them and some others last Winter. That an Indian was shot by another the first of this Winter at the upper Settlement, the Indian killed having murdered his Wife last Summer was the reason of the other’s taking the same revenge, the Woman being his Sister: Tis supposed that the affair will stop here….” This account demonstrates how one “Beaver Indian” personally took “revenge” for the murder of his sister. Also, the injured party had the opportunity to settle the dispute if they decided to accept gifts from the offender.
The indigenous people of Manitoba lost a lot of their cultural practices and political autonomy with the passage of the Indian Act. Crimes that occur on reserve and in the traditional territory of the indigenous people of Manitoba are under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Justice System, and traditional mediation techniques that involve tribal elders are ignored. Also, the Canadian government has often tried to undermine the sovereignty of indigenous groups, denying them rights like voting unless they agreed to assimilate into European culture. However, reconciliation efforts are taking place in Canada, and with these efforts, indigenous people are regaining some of their sovereignty. There is still much to be done, and as a culture, we need to move forward and re-institute some of the original law practices of the indigenous people of Manitoba.

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Thanks to the efforts of indigenous people, their culture and laws have survived through centuries full of oppression and opposition. It is impossible to create on broad statement on the evolution of indigenous law in Canada and the United States, as there are many different tribes, circumstances and alliances that dictated the evolution of indigenous laws and governance. However, European culture has implemented a justice system that replaced many traditional methods of justice.  These changes have impacted Indigenous culture as a whole, and will continue to influence their culture, as well as our culture as Canadians.


In Depth Blog Post #11


So, the last time I met with my mentor, I had the opportunity to glaze and decorate chocolate ganache cakes. I really enjoyed this experience because I had the opportunity to learn something new. I will definitely use these skills in creating my final project, a mirror glazed cake. A challenge that I have faced recently is that I am trying to cut sugar out of my diet, so this has restricted my baking at home. I am continuing to bake in the bakery, and I am considering applying for a position at another bakery once In Depth is over.


1. What kinds of learning opportunities does the mentor provide to expose you to new learning?

My mentor exposes me to new learning opportunities by having me take on new tasks. These tasks include assembling French macrons, baking, frosting and decorating ganache cakes, assembling items for high tea, etc.

2. What kinds of learning opportunities exist to reinforce new learning?

To reinforce this learning, I usually repeat this task a substantial amount of times to allow myself to learn by practicing. The opportunity for me to do this stems from the fact that my bakery makes a lot of products en masse, and this repetition allows for stronger learning.

3. What kinds of opportunities exist that might accelerate learning?

Some opportunities that exist that might accelerate learning are the opportunity that I have to observe my mentor bake. This allows me to gain a deeper understanding of the tasks that I’ve been assigned, because I have an opportunity to learn from her actions.

4. When you get together what do you talk about?

When I’m with my mentor, we usually talk about baking-related concepts. For example, we discussed the variations and temperament of French macrons, and how climate and altitude can impact the baking.

5. What is going particularly well in your mentoring relationship right now?

Something that is going well in my mentoring relationship is that I feel like I am learning a lot, and my mentor is contributing to this influx of knowledge. I an really enjoying my position in the bakery, and feel that I am gaining valuable experience and practical knowledge.

6. What are you learning about one another?

I feel like I am learning more about my mentor’s personality. For example, she has a vision for her creations, and this allows her to create wonderful baked goods. She also has a specific taste and values cohesion in baked goods. Also, she is an extrovert and entrepreneur.