Canadian Autonomy Timeline Inquiry

The Chanak Crisis

The Chanak Crisis is important for establishing Canadian autonomy and independence because Canada’s actions, or rather inactions, helped to define its role in the British Empire, as an ally and as a dominion. In the Chanak Crisis, when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was advancing on Constantinople in the neutral zone, Britain called on it’s dominions (Canada, New Zealand, Australia, etc.) for help and troops. The British forces were insufficient to hold back the advancing Turkish troops, and it looked like there might be another war. Both Canada and Australia were reeling from losses in World War 1, and were not interested in getting involved in this fight. Mackenzie King, the Prime Minister at the time, chose to defer the matter to Parliament instead of providing Britain with troops and assistance. By the time Parliament actually voted on the matter, the crisis had past, but it was still a demonstration of Canada’s blossoming independence. This was the first time in Canadian history a Prime Minister of Canada chose to decline a British request, and instead allow Parliament, an extension of its people, to determine its fate. The actions of the Prime Minister and Canadian government sent a message that Canada wanted more independence and a seperate foreign policy from Great Britain.

The Halibut Treaty

The Halibut Treaty was important for establishing Canadian autonomy and identity because this was the first time Canada had negotiated a treaty entirely seperate from Great Britain. In 1916 and 1917, the halibut fish stocks in the Pacific were declining, in an industry was primarily in Canadian waters and dominated by American fishermen, the two countries, Canada and American, decided to hold the American-Canadian Fisheries Conference, where they drafted a treaty outlying halibut management, tariffs, port sharing, and submitted it to their respective governments. This bill was block by the US Senate, and the two nations met again to discuss just the issue of halibut conservation. This treaty, and the subsequent commission it established created a closed season and carried out it’s own scientific research. Everyone in this situation was happy, from the individual fishermen to the Canadian and American governments. Britain, however, was not happy as they were not included in negotiations and they did not countersign the bill, due to Mackenzie King’s insistence. Canada’s actions, while technically illegal at the time, signaled to the British government that Canada was ready for more independence and autonomous.

In summary, both of these events signaled to Britain that Canada was seeking a more active role in their own foreign policy, as well as kickstarting the movement towards the Balfour Declaration and the Statute of Westminster.


Chanak Crisis,_Articles_1_-_260

The Halibut Treaty–Treaties–Halibut-Treaty/475.htm

Math Art With Functions

I created my graph art through trial and error, and I used a reference picture to help me with my image. Some challenges I faced were with the mountains, because I couldn’t get them to look right. I was able to work through this mostly on my own, and an aha moment was when I used trigonometric functions for the waves. This assignment helped me understand  quadratic functions and circle graphs better, as well as transformations. Through learning from trial and error I was able to teach myself about graphs and their properties, and  I found this assignment helpful for my understanding of math and graphing.



Independent Novel Study Speech

What is Canadian Identity? Who defines it? Who records it? Who writes it?
To many, this is the job of writers, historians, artists. And, for many years, this honor has fell to the first Canadian female to win the Nobel Literature prize, the three-time winner of Governor General’s prize for literature, a knight of the Order of the Arts and Letters. A poor farm girl from rural Ontario, a starving university student, a housewife, a mother, a divorcee, and then, a world famous author. Alice Munro.

In Writing Her Lives, by Robert Thacker, we learn about of one of the powerhouses of Canadian Fiction and short story writing. Through Munro’s stories, she proved that there was no “right way” to be a Canadian author, and she defined Canadian Literature at a crucial turning point in the publishing world. Her stories detailed small town Canadian life in a brutal, messy style, the epitome of Southern Ontario Gothic. Her stories chronicled, spoke, and defined Canadian literature, and in that, Canadian identity.

The year was 1970. Paranoia and fear ran rampant in the Canadian publishing community. Ryerson Press, a cornerstone of Canadian publishing, had just been bought by McGraw Hill, an American firm. Would this move swallow Canadian authors, remove their culture and patriotism, assimilate our nation into American ideals and values? What was needed a change, a group of authors to shepherd Canada into a new golden age of literature, where Canadian values and Canadian lives, chronicled in artfully crafted stories, would reach not just Canadian audiences, but audiences worldwide. The three Margaret’s, as they were called, filled this niche. Margaret Atwood, Margaret Laurence, and ironically, not a Margaret, but an Alice: Alice Munro.

Alice Munro grew up poor in the Huron Valley, in a little town called Wingham. Her father was an entrepreneur, a fox farmer that had fallen on hard times, and her mother was a former teacher turned housewife. She grew up poor, and no one had any expectations for her. She won a scholarship to Western Ontario University for two years, and after the money ran out, she married James Munro, and they moved to Vancouver, far, far away from Alice’s familiar Ontario. She never had much time for writing, as she raised four young daughters. She always felt out of place, constrained by her role as a housewife and mother, an unfamiliar setting where she lived yet never felt at home.
She published sporadically, but never reached her potential. She was fighting constantly with her husband, and was never content with the life everyone wanted for, a life trapped in the constraints of domesticity and motherhood. It was time for her to break the mold. Divorce was only just beginning to be accepted, along with self-sufficient women. Taking a leap of faith, Alice was both of these: adapting to difficult conditions and circumstances, a true Canadian. She became a writer-in-residence, a professor, taking odd jobs to provide for herself and her daughters, all the while churning out stories to become a Canadian literary powerhouse. Alice Munro used her strength, determination, and skill to reach the status of a legendary author, upsetting norms and proving that a women could make it big.

See, Alice Munro was no ordinary author. Her work unexpectedly explored the human condition through characters that are quintessential to everyday life: a mother returning home after a death of a loved one, a teenaged girl after a school dance, a housewife longing for more. Alice Munro’s stories were packed full of detail, ordinary and simple people and places and events that forced a reckoning in the lives of the characters. Each story says something about broader social norms, about the people and places that inhabit everyday life, that inhabit Canada. Alice Munro defines and redefines Canadian Identity through provocative works of fiction, and while the stories are not autobiographical, they are personal, showing her unique insight into the function of society and it’s norms at a time when Canada was beginning to redefine itself.

John A Macdonald: Founding Fraud?

Our views of historical figures are often spurious, their flaws forgotten with time, and we remember them only for the good they created, not the bad. John A. Macdonald is an example of this trend. We remember him for “unifying” Canada, but not for shaping it into an egocentric vanity project, which he meticulously designed to mimic Great Britain. He took away the right to vote from ethnic Chinese-Canadians because he feared their views would be conducive to building a white-nationalist state. He attempted to mold Canada into another Great Britain through exclusionary policies based on race. Canada should remove John A. Macdonald from the public sphere because of his biases and moral failings.
Contrary to popular belief, before the Electoral Franchise Act (which prevented Chinese people from voting), naturalized Chinese Canadians had the right to vote. John A. Macdonald was the only member of Parliament “to argue that Asians and Europeans were different species” and “it had taken Macdonald two years to get his legislation through the house” (Stanley). Views deeply ingrained in society don’t create such outrage and opposition. This insistence on integrating “biological racism” into Canadian law was perhaps the only piece of domestic policy that Macdonald insisted on. Faced with controversy when he tabled a bill to allow women to vote, Macdonald folded quickly and easily. If this bill had been merely a result of public opinion, he would not have pursued it to the extent that he did. His persistence in excluding Chinese-Canadians was a result of a personal bias, in which he tried to mold Canada into another England, to exclude and alienate those that didn’t share so-called “British instincts”. His prejudice against any non-white citizens represents the intolerance that he based so many of his policy decisions on, ingraining racism into Canadian society where it wasn’t before. Macdonald represents the dark side of Confederation and colonialism, further demonstrating that we should not worship him with statues and tributes, and thus remove him and his name from the public sphere.

Contrary to this point, some say that John A. Macdonald’s views were merely a reflection of the time. They justify his biased policies because these policies were based on views that were deeply embedded into Canada’s culture: this was just the way things were back then. This was not the case. John A. argued that the Chinese would control the vote in the new province of British Columbia, so he set out to ban these people from participating in the electoral system, even though the opposition argued “the Chinese were ‘industrious people’ who had “voted in the last election'” This bill was designed to prevent Chinese Canadians from voting, and it created controversy. John A. Macdonald’s views were clearly not simply a result of his time, but rather a personal one that unjustly influenced his political decisions.

Macdonald undoubtedly changed Canada; however, these changes were not positive. His leading role in denying the Chinese the right to vote opened the door for other exclusionary, unfair acts based on race. He created a legacy of division and discrimination that exists even to this day. John A. Macdonald’s checkered past does not make him a good role model for this country and statues of him “would be better suited for a museum” (Olivier). Removing John A. Macdonald from public spaces does not mean minimizing his contributions to building Canada, but is merely calling attention to the problematic actions whose impacts we still see in modern day Canada.

Works Cited
Gray, Charlotte. “We Need to Widen Our Views.” Library and Archives Canada, 2019, pp. 25–27.
Hopper, Tristin. “Sure, John A. Macdonald Was a Racist, Colonizer and Misogynist – but so Were Most Canadians Back Then.” National Post, 24 Jan. 2015,
Oliver, Annabelle. “Activists Deface Statue of Sir John A. Macdonald in Downtown Montrea lActivists Deface Statue of Sir John A. Macdonald in Downtown Montreal.” CBC News.
“Sir John A. Macdonald.” The Canadian Encyclopedia,
Stanley, Timothy J. “John A Macdonald and the Invention of White Supremecy in Canada.” Ebsco Host, 2014,

In-Depth #6

Today I, alongside Grace, met with Cassidy and Payten at SFU. We checked traps, got a chance to look at the breeding room, where they grow flies, hold maggots, and identify different types of flies using a dissecting microscope. Grace and I also met up on Friday during the pro-d to plan our learning center, and reach out to Cassidy.
– Justice (examining evidence to find the perpetrator)
– Categorization (sorting evidence, classifying insects, etc.)
– Meticulousness (attention to detail needed to fully examine the crime scene)
– Security (evidence needs to be protected, the criminal must be prevented from future crimes)
– When one categorizes different insects, there is usually more than one way of determining the subspecies. In the reference guide Grace and I used, there was one option that was underlined, meaning it was the most prominent/visible/unique option, but one or two other options was listed as well. This is in case you can’t find the feature, so it gives you a backup. However, sometimes this secondary feature is not unique to the fly species, so it is preferable to use the main one.
– Grace and I were also able to offer some alternatives to Cassidy for her traps, because she found she wasn’t catching as many flies up at SFU, so we suggested to shrink the hole in which the flies could enter.
– Another mentor might have offered more specialization or a different set of skills, but with the connections that Grace and I established we were able to gain a pretty broad view of forensics as a whole.

Learning Center:
For our learning center, Grace and I are going to create a mock crime scene and take the visitors through it so they have a chance to interact with different parts of it. We will have a “body” , which we are making out of paper mache and duct tape, and different evidence markers, as well as photographs, fingerprinting, degree day calculations, and a board on myths and wrongful convictions. Grace and I will take people through this mock crime scene, pointing out elements and teaching skills along the way. I hope the audience will learn something about forensics while also having a good time.

Novel Study Check-In

1. “In direct and vivid ways, these three stories reveal Alice Munro rediscovering – as a mature woman and writer- the cultural legacies left her by her family in her home place. Munro’s mother’s presences is only the most pressing and urgent one – more distant ancestors, like the cousins in “The Ottawa Valley” or her aunt and grandmother in “Winter Wind,” reveal Munro’s awareness of the web of human interconnection defined by her home place. She began exploring that web in a new way in her stories when she returned and confronted them, still there, in Ontario.” (pg. 66)
a. Personal Interest
i. I find this quote interesting because it shows Munro’s depth as a writer who is able to create vivid scenes and characters. From the passages I read from her work, this ability to create sharp, vivid scenes really adds to her short stories and novels, and this is what she is most known for. As a writer, Munro probes human emotion and connection while creating scenes of vivid detail, and her small town, mundane stories remind me of Steward McClain’s short stories, with both their takes on average Canadian lives.
b. Canadian Identity:
i. This passage shows Alice Munro’s interconnectedness with her childhood home and her roots, and her ability to draw on her web of Canadian ancestry to craft meaningful pieces of Canadian Literature. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, when Alice Munro publishes these stories, featured in Something I’ve Been Meaning to Tell You, her work is at the forefront of defining Canadian Identity and culture. Munro’s reliance on her experiences growing up in rural Ottawa, and weaving these deeply Canadian stories from her memories, struck a cord when many authors fretted about the invasion of large American publishing corporations into Canadian writing and publishing. Her ability to draw on her experiences and roots from her childhood in the Huron Valley deeply impacts her writing, exemplifying Canada’s need for Canadian work, particularly Canadian literature.

2. . “Recalling her university years, Munro says that she loved her time there, ‘being in that atmosphere, having all those books, not having to do any housework. Those are the only tow years of my life without housework.'” (pg. 261)
a. Personal Interest:
i. This quote is interestingbecause  Munro is reveling in the atmosphere of university and its sharp contrast with her prior experiences. She was expected, as the oldest child and daughter with a sick mother, to take on much of the physical labor and chores in the household. She was also expected to fulfill this role when she married her (now ex) husband. There were certain societal pressures on her, pulling her away from her talents as a writer and into the realm of a housewife. These societal pressures interest me because it is so easy to see the limits and confines of the mold society created, and it reminds me of A Wizard of Earthsea by Ursula Le Guin, where Ged is pressured by his peers to conform to the talents of his peers and not reach his true potential and autonomy.

b. Canadian Identity:
i. This quote shows the expectation and societal pressure for women in Canada to be homemakers and housewives. Munro was no exception to this rule, and actually worked as a maid for one summer while she was still in high school, and completing a lot of work at home for her family. When she could no longer afford to go to university, she was presented with two choices: to marry a man at the university, or to return to the Huron Valley and marry a farmer. This lack of options besides marriage shows that Munro was expected to conform to society’s norms at the time, and she did, marrying a man from her university and moving to Vancouver. From there she lived a “double life”- both that of a mother and homemaker and that of an artist, and this tension between the two causes conflicts in her life and marriage.

3. “Combining marriage and family with ‘the black life of an artist’ as she did from 1952 through the 1970s, this coincidence of births was a fitting one for Alice Munro” (pg. 321)
a. Personal Interest:
i. I find this quote interesting because of the coincidence between this Munro publishing this story and her child being born. Also, this intersection of her two lives allowed her to draw inspiration from one for the other: She writes about her daughter almost drowning and her failing marriage. She manages to combine her lives at crucial intervals, and this intersection of her two lives was no different, blending and merging her two identities.
b. Canadian Identity:
i. This quote shows the intersection of her Alice Munro’s two lives. This quote is talking about the release of her first story in a magazine, which coincided with the birth of her first daughter. This combining of her lives was often an unequal one, with her children and home often taking first priority, and her work taking second, with the exception of the few months where she rented an office space and published only one story- “The Office”. She was often too exhausted to work on her short stories, or too busy, so her passion and work often came second to her family during this time period.

4. . “[Gerald Taaffe] went through the slush pile of unsolicited manuscripts […] and found just one piece he wanted to publish – a story called “Dance of the Happy Shades”. It was, unfortunately, unsigned.” (pg. 403)
a. Personal Interest:
i. I found the extent of Munro’s modest and self-effacing actions incredible. She often sent work to publishers unsigned, and in occasions like this when her work was noticed, the author was unknown. Her modesty also translated into everyday conversations and letters to , like one to her editor where she said “I’m sorry to bother you”. This shows me that Munro was never in writing for the fame or fortune, rather she chose to write because she needed too, because it was a part of her psyche and deeply imbedded in her being. For Munro, “The Peace of Utrecht” was almost painful to write, but she wrote it anyway, to process her mother’s illness and death. I find her motivations and drive vary interesting, and in a way her determination reminds me of Hamilton.
b. Canadian Identity:
i. This shows Munro’s self-effacing, modest quality, which was expected for women at that time period. Her decision to not sign the manuscript reflects her distaste for attention and celebrity. These actions also show the values and norms when she was a child, where in the Huron Valley, modesty and hard work were valued and emphasized in everyday life. This passage also shows the quality of Munro’s work, and the willingness of the magazine editor to include it instead of opting for a more well-known author. This concept of modesty is still reflected in Canadians today, and it is a part of our national identity.
5. . “Munro’s ‘normal life’ was changing. […] She says when asked her occupation she replied ‘writer ‘ instead of ‘housewife’. It was an exhilarating idea to her.” (pg. 483)
a. Personal Interest:
i. I find this shift in Munro’s perspective interesting, seeing her grow from a meek housewife who occasionally wrote short stories to an autonomous woman who is capable of being independent and self-sufficient. During this time she divorces her first husband, and the amount of opportunities she had was incredible to her. She did this all when the views and status of women in society were rapidly changing, allowing her to reach her full potential. In a sense, this change and shift from women as mothers and housewives to autonomous people reflects a revolution and social change, which relates to STEP, which we learned about in humanities.

b. Canadian Identity: What insights or pieces of wisdom might these passages reveal about Canadian values at the time of the text’s publication? What does each passage reveal about what it means to be a Canadian now?
i. This quote shows the shift in Canadian identity and social norms during the 1970’s. Munro’s shift in her view of herself demonstrates the overall shift as women from housewives and mothers to people, who are able to work and contribute to the economy. Before this, working past your twenties was stigmatized and women were criticized because of their supposed inability to find a husband. Munro’s views of herself demonstrate this shift and allow her to reach her full potential as a writer.


Society’s values often dictate how we view ourselves, and a shift in these values allows us to view ourselves in a different manner, allowing us to learn and grow into a new part of ourselves.

I can take away this message from Alice Munro: Writing Her Lives because it was so adeptly demonstrated by Munro herself. Her view of herself and her work shifts when society’s perception of a woman in the workforce shifts, and this allows her to fulfill her true potential as a writer.

In Depth Post #5

Record a short section of conversation between you and your mentor. Transcribe the conversation. Identify the different hats in the conversation.

The last lecture I went to was on Forensic Biology. This is the study of biological substances, like hair, blood, saliva, and so on. The lecture was an hour and a half, so I will put in sections of my notes that exemplify the different hats.


White hat:

What do we know?

One of the topics Dr. Warren touched on was the study of hair. Here are the notes for this section:


  • Class characteristics
    • Shed everywhere
    • Shed all the time
    • Miscarriages of justice possible- hair misidentified, science is not exact
      • Evidence not consistent (human vs. animal hair, DNA extraction not possible)
      • Now only used as corroborating evidence

The entire study of forensic biology is identifying what we know and gathering evidence, then using proven techniques to establish and corroborate facts.

What do we need to know?

One method Dr. Warren touched on was using different indicators to identify blood. Something that I found very interesting was that these indicators (Luminol, Bluestar) glow because of the iron in blood, and false positives are possible if other iron-rich materials are present, so it is important to always corroborate this test with another, confirmatory test. So, we always need to know whether the presumptive test that was used is correct.

  • Presumptive
    • Luminol
    • Haemastix
      • Turns green with blood
        • False positives
          • Bleach rust
        • Interferes with DNA analysis
    • Bluestar
      • Okay with DNA
    • Kastle Meyer/ phenophalene
  • Confirmatory test
    • Only haemachromagen test
    • No false positives
    • Chemicals added to blood sample
    • Turns into crystals
    • Still don’t know what type of blood it is
      • Animal?
      • Human?
    • Precipitin test
    • Commercially available anti-sera
    • Old- blood type
    • DNA testing as of 1985
      • First brought into court
      • Lester, England

What is missing?

Something that was interesting that Dr. Warren talked about was the possibility of false positives with PCR because of the amplification of the DNA. I found it interesting because we don’t have a way to check whether it has been contaminated once run through the machine, and we can only take steps during the collection process to try and minimize this risk.

What questions should we ask?

  • When was the crime committed?
  • How did the crime occur?
  • What happened (classification)?
  • Why (Motive)?
  • Who (DNA evidence, suspect)?
  • Where (secondary location)?

How might we get the information we need?

We can gain the information we need through a variety of presumptive tests, which we in turn corroborate with a confirmatory test. This is true for any biological fluid, including blood. The presumptive test is run first, then the sample is sent off to another lab where a confirmatory test is run.

Red Hat:

Dr. Warren talked about a specific case where the police officers had only used a presumptive test and their intuition to convict an innocent person. She warned us of the dangers of assuming without corroborating our evidence.

  • Might be blood
    • Dingo baby case
      • Australia
        • Family camping in Australia
        • Dingo running out tent with baby in mouth
          • Mother accused of murdering baby
            • Killed baby with nail scissors(?)
              • While everyone was out looking for baby
              • Got rid of body
                • Only used a presumptive test
                • Need to use a confirmatory test
              • Baby’s jacket found in Dingo’s lair
                • Disrupted life
                • Car glowed when sprayed with luminol
                  • because of Iron filings

Black Hat

The black hat is especially important because it can be used to turn a critical eye over any evidence, which is very important to ensure that the evidence is accurate and as presise as possible. One of the tests Dr. Warren talked about was hair analysis, and the limits of it. For example, DNA can only be extracted from hair if it still has the bulb at the base of the hair, because this is the living part. You also need anywhere from 80-100 pulled scalp hairs to precisely determine the person who the hair belonged to, so there are limits to using hairs to prove/disprove a suspect’s involvement. Also, before DNA was used, foresnic scientists used to examine the cuticle and medula, and this led to a couple of wrongful convictions, so it is always important to be critical when using hair as evidence.

    • Not consistent with donor
    • Contained too few hairs?
  • Negative
    • Consistent with donor
  • Positive
    • Comparison sample needed
      • Suspect and victim
        • Need some from victim
          • What if they are from the victim
    • Adequate sample required
      • 80-100 PULLED scalp hairs
      • 30-50 PULLED pubic hairs
      • From all over region
        • Temples vs. Back of head
        • Comparison sample
      • Collect from
        • Partners, victims
  • Hair Collection
  • Hair is considered class evidence
    • Except with tag
      • Loose, extraneous hairs are class evidence

Yellow Hat:

This hat was used to explain the value in using confirmatory tests in addition to presumptive tests. This goes along with the red hat, as value is found in having a correct conviction and ensuring innocent people don’t go to jail. Standardized protocol is used to ensure preservation of this hat.

Green Hat:

This hat was used when Dr. Warren talked about the career path to become a specialist, specifically a forensic biologist.

  • Civilian Scientists
    • B.Sc. (Hon.)
  • Technicians
    • Evidence Recovery Unit (a lab)
      • Evidence Recovery Unit

        • Search technologists
        • Locate and recover important evidence
        • Everyone starts here
        • Presumptive tests
          • Blood? Or other iron rich substance?
      • In lab
        • T-shirt (with blood on it)
          • Blood (possibly) sample cut out
            • Sent to specialist
  • PCR Analyst (3-5 years past evidence recovery unit)
    • Extract DNA
  • Specialist
    • Testify in court
    • Biology reporting office
      • Stats, probability
      • Likelihood of someone matching this sample
  • If no honors –  remain at the level of technician

Blue Hat: This hat was in use when Dr. Warren outlined Forensic Biology at the beginning of the lesson.

  • Biological fluids
    • Hair
    • Tissues
    • Blood, saliva, etc.
  • Human?
    • Can it be individualized?
      • Who?
  • In past- class evidence
    • Hair
    • Use DNA now
  • Present- now use DNA as prefered method of corroboration

What is Canada?

There seems to be a lot of debate over whether or not Canada is a nation. A nation is a group of people who are bound together by their beliefs, values, and collective identity. Does Canada, a country of difference and diversity, fit into this definition? Or are we a post-national state, disembodied from our identity and floating adrift in a world where borders and collective identity are less important and less relevant? I believe that Canada is a nation. We are bound together by our own form of nationalism, quieter than that of the United States, where it is common to flaunt a flag and pledge allegiance to the country, even in schools. Canada lacks this institutional nationalism, instead, we have created something uniquely Canadian: soft nationalism. Nationalism may have a bad name, with many governments using it to justify violent aggressions. However, “Healthy nationalism encourages people to cooperate”, writes Douglas Todd. It encourages us to work to build the best possible Canada, and take pride in the place where we live. When we compare our country to others, we are constantly ranked as one of the best places to live, one of the best places to get an education, one of the best places to be a part of the middle class. We see these rankings and feel a warm, self-assured pride. We really are one of the best places to live. Canada is a nation because of our collective sense of togetherness and pride in our home country. And this is reflected in our national identity. One of the arguments frequently used to dismiss Canada as a nation is that we lack a national identity. Our prime minister, Justin Trudeau, even went so far as saying that there was “no core identity, no mainstream in Canada”. Marshall McLahan says that Canada is the only country “that knows how to live without a national identity”. Is this really true? Or are we confusing our lack of an American-esk nation with not having one at all. Now, national identity is the ” sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, and language” as defined by the Google dictionary. Canada has two languages, English and French; we have traditions: remnants of our monarchy, like our Governor General; Canada Day, where we are reminded of Confederation and the rich and vibrant history of our nation; Remembrance Day, where we thank the fallen soldiers that sacrificed everything to preserve our country. Our culture, our institutions, our achievements, less aggressive and in-your-face than our southern neighbor, but still thriving. Our diversity, our multiculturalism, our different beliefs and views and thoughts and feelings all bind us together. Our differences, and pride in our differences, create our community. They create the nation of Canada.

• Last Thursday a guest speaker from the Justice Institute of British Columbia
• Spoke about his job, as well as police and court procedures during cases
• This Thursdays class was cancelled as SFU was closed

• #4 What new information are you getting and what questions did you ask to probe further into the topic?
• I learned a lot about Police procedural and the steps required to become a forensic investigator with the RCMP (located in Ontario)
○ There is a singular college that all the police officers go to when they get certified
○ The training is standardized between all the officers
○ So if there is a larger investigation than Police officers from other parts of Canada can fly in an assist.
• #5 Discuss any new points of view you developed while in conversation with your mentor.
• I was thinking about the current finger print registry
○ Currently it only contains the finger prints of registered (convicted) criminal offenders
○ Crimes go unsolved because fingerprints go unmatched
○ Maybe prints should be collected regardless of indictment (?)
§ Less individual rights
§ More collective rights
• #6 What were some of the alternative perceptions that are new to you.
• Something I found interesting is that there has been an increase of burning of cars after crimes are committed
○ Thinking about getting rid of forensic evidence
§ Not very common 10 years ago
§ Much more common now
□ People are committing crimes and being more conscious of getting rid of forensic evidence
® I hadn’t though about this before, so I found this very interesting
• Also, expert witnesses need to be re-certified (prove their expertness)   for every court case
• Also, you can forge/ plant fingerprints
• #9 How do your mentor values differ from yours?
• Our values didn’t differ that much, as we both agree on the fact that collecting information needs to be as non-biased as possible, and he didn’t share any of his own opinions and values, just facts
• #12 What questions did you ask to check on facts and details? Elaborate.
• The speaker mentioned two cases where fingerprints had been wrongly identified
○ The Madrid Bomber Case
§ Partial fingerprint matched with a lawyer in America
□ Harassed by police because of religion
□ Eventually exonerated
○ Case about a female police officer in Scotland
§ Fingerprint was present on door handle
§ Misidentified as culprit
• I didn’t recognize them so I decided to investigate more
○ After researching them, I found out what they were and the dangers of misidentifying or relying to much on fingerprints

Romeo and Juliet’s relationship is not “true love”, rather, it is a mimicry known as “puppy love” or infatuation, where teenagers see a stereotype playing out, and then they repeat it. This happens because of Juliet’s young age, and Romeo’s unfaithfulness. Juliet is a child. Even though society considering teenagers adults used to be a social norm, as Paris says “younger than [Juliet] are happy mothers made” (1.2. 13), Juliet is young, as “she hath not seen the change of fourteen years” (1.2. 9). Juliet is still thirteen, still a child. While others consider Juliet of an eligible age for marrying, her brain will only finish developing when she is in her mid-twenties; this is not influenced by any cultural norm. True love requires dedication, thoughtfulness, and commitment, which all require a mature brain. Juliet falling in love and marrying before her brain fully develops will “mar” her, as others expect her to commit her life to someone when she’s barely lived it. In addition, Romeo’s affection for Juliet is infatuation, not love, as Juliet is not the first woman Romeo has “loved”. In a single day, Romeo has gone from passionately attracted, apparently in “love” to Rosalind to being in this so-called love with Juliet. True love means that you only have eyes for one person, and that is far from Romeo’s views on these women. The only difference between Juliet and Rosaline? Juliet is prettier, and will return his affection. Romeo is incapable of knowing whether or not he is truly in love with Juliet, as attraction and infatuation greatly confuse and twist his previous forays into the field of romance. Friar Laurence remarks at this discrepancy, saying “Young men’s love then lies / Not truly in their hearts but in their eyes” (2.3. 66-67). Friar Laurence is saying that Romeo’s love is not true, he is not loving with his heart, but rather with his eyes, showing Romeo’s willingness to declare attraction to a woman “love”. Romeo will stop loving Juliet as soon as he finds a more beautiful woman, just as he stops loving Rosaline when he first meets Juliet.

Kulich’s editorial arguing that Romeo and Juliet are not children is ineffective as they neglect to address the real issue: whether or not Romeo and Juliet are children engaging in puppy love. Kulich dances around the issue, stating that yes, cultural norms were different then, and even up to World War II, fourteen-year-olds were considered adults. The issue with this argument is that cultural norms cannot and will not change science. Juliet may have been considered a woman in her prime of life in Renaissance era Verona. That doesn’t change the fact that she is thirteen. A mere child. Her brain will not develop until her mid twenties, leaving her unprepared to make decisions. Marrying off a child will not change this fact, and mothers are five times more likely to die during childbirth if they are under 15, compared to women in their twenties, and children of child brides are 60% more likely to die than children with mothers over the age of 19. It’s no wonder Juliet is the only child that her father had that survived into adulthood. There is a time and place for moral relativism, and it’s not in science. Kulich implies that if we force children to mature earlier, instead of keeping them “sequestered for longer and longer and keeping them away from real life”. This notion is false, as biologically, Juliet is not prepared to be a bride. She is not prepared to grow up and have children. It may be a “historical fact” that woman that were fourteen years old, or even younger, were treated as woman and married off at an early age, but it is a biological fact that she is not ready, physically or mentally, to truly love someone, get married, and have children.